Learners of Russian often find the aspects of the verb a particularly difficult grammar point to learn, but verbal aspect does exist in English grammar too. Earlier this evening I attended a seminar at King's College, University of London, given by Douglas Biber, who is Regents' Professor, Applied Linguistics at Northern Arizona University. He is co-author of the Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English, which is a corpus-based reference book, which means that all examples are taken from sentences that are not made up to illustrate particular grammar points, but that have actually been uttered by native speakers of English.
Professor Biber maintains there are three aspects of the English verb: simple (as in 'she works very hard'), progressive ('she is writing a letter') and perfect ('she has gone home'). Some people say there is a fourth aspect - perfect progressive ('she has been working'). EFL grammar books typically devote a lot of attention to the progressive aspect of verbs, and often begin in Chapter One by teaching these verb forms before anything else. Professor Biber's corpus analysis showed that, in fact, it is the simple aspect that is by far the most common aspect used in spoken English (I work in a bank, I think that ..., do you like, we want to know etc).
Using the progressive (or continuous) aspect instead of the simple is a common error of learners of English ('I am coming from Germany', eg). That could be because a disproportionate amount of time is devoted to the teaching of this verb form, which its frequency in ordinary English speech does not justify.