The OED published its latest additions at the end of last month, and Chief Editor John Simpson highlights a group of 'volcano-related' words in an article on the OED site (here).
The earliest word in English that described what we now call a volcano was vulcan, first used with this sense in the early 15th century, but the word was known much earlier as the name of the Roman god of fire and metalworking. By the 17th century the word vulcan had also gained the meaning of metalworker or blacksmith, and also of cuckold, particularly where the husband in question was a blacksmith. Volcan started to be used in the late 16th century to mean a volcano, and volcano, itself, which by the 18th century had become the established spelling, entered English a few years later in the early 17th century. The words have their origin in Latin (the volcan spelling came from Spanish). As Simpson says in his article, it is not surprising that such mountains were given foreign names, since they are not English phenomena.
Vulcan has always been in the OED, but a new sense has gone within the last few weeks, namely the fictional alien race from Star Trek.