I went to a series of talks recently about Jewish artists and musicians in imperial and Soviet Russia. It was noted that the words pogrom and refusenik, in use in modern day English, have links to Russian Jewish history. Although pogrom can now mean, as the OED says, "An organized, officially tolerated, attack on any community or group", it originally referred to the massacring of Jews in the late 19th and early 20th-century in the Russian empire. The OED says that the word is partly a borrowing from Yiddish, and partly a borrowing from Russian, and literally means 'destruction'. Refusenik is clearly from the English word refuse, but the word is formed on the model of the Russian otkaznik, which is from the Russian verb for 'to refuse'. The original refusenik or otkaznik was a Jew who was refused permission to emigrate to Israel. The Russian word then widened in meaning to mean someone who refused to do military service. Now, refusenik is used colloquially in modern English to mean "A person who refuses to do something, esp. as a protest" (OED).
The Pale of Settlement was a large area in the west of the Russian Empire, where Jews were allowed to settle, and beyond which they had no rights of permanent residency. It is therefore often thought that the English idiom beyond the pale may have a connection with the Pale of Settlement, or perhaps with another Pale, notably the area of Ireland under English rule in the late Middle Ages. Pale in this idiom is, according to the OED, partly a borrowing from the Latin and partly from the Old French words for a post or stick, part of a fence. The OED says that there is no evidence to support the view that the pale of beyond the pale refers to the area of Ireland once called the Pale, or the Pale of Settlement, and the theory that it does is more likely to be a later rationalisation.